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DESCRIPTION: A delicious berry-flavored small lozenge providing 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin - the active form of vitamin B12.
FORMULA: Our B12-Plus Lozenges provide 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin in each naturally-flavored lozenge. This specialized form of B12 is created by fermentation with a proprietary strain of bacteria, resulting in a high-potency, gluten-free, vegan form of this essential nutrient.
INDICATIONS: Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient for life, and deficiencies are not uncommon. Vitamin B12 deficiencies are associated with: Nerve pain Fatigue Alcoholism Chronic illness Pregnancy Improper vegetarian diets
B12 is indicated as a dietary supplement for: Supporting energy production Normalizing homocysteine synthesis Promoting healthy cognitive function Supporting the sleep-wake cycle Elderly patients who often have deficiencies and/or higher requirements of this nutrient.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 helps maintain healthy nerve and red blood cells in humans and is needed to make DNA. Vitamin B12 is bound to proteins in food, and must be separated from protein in order to be used by the body. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach separates B12 from protein. Once released, B12 combines with a compound called intrinsic factor (IF), which allows B12 to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Humans can store several years' worth of vitamin B12 in the body. However, deficiency can result from being unable to use vitamin B12 from a defect in absorption, reduced intake of B12 (such as in vegans or strict vegetarians) or reduced ability to make HCl (occurs during the aging process). The most common inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract manifests as a disease known as pernicious anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in abnormal neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. According to the NIH’s Medline Plus, “these symptoms may occur when vitamin B12 levels are just slightly lower than normal.
Mechanisms of Action The majority of the B12 circulating in blood is in the methyl form. The difference between cyano- and methylcobalamin is that cyano B12 has a cyanide group (CN) attached, whereas methyl B12 carries a methyl group (CH3). Before cyano B12 can be properly used by the body, it has to be stripped of its cyano group and 'reduced' (gain electrons). Once that is done, it is ready to take on a methyl group and be distributed throughout the body as methyl B12.
Cobalamin is reabsorbed from the bile each day. This explains why strict vegetarians who do not consume animal proteins can develop vitamin B12 deficiency after many years. However those with absorptive defects (e.g. stomach removal, bariatric surgery, or hereditary defects) show signs as quickly as 2-3 years. Intestinal bacteria are another source of internally produced cobalamin.
Homocysteine appears to accumulate in the body whenever B12 gets low, and this accumulation has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. Folate and B12 are necessary cofactors for the enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
Importance in homocysteine, SAM-e and fat metabolism regulation Methylcobalamin transfers the methyl portion to homocysteine to form methionine. Inadequate dietary intake of methyl groups leads to low methylation of important pathways such as disturbed hepatic protein (methionine) metabolism as determined by elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations and decreased S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) concentrations, and inadequate hepatic fat metabolism, which leads to steatosis (fatty accumulation) and ensuing plasma dyslipidemia. Such disturbed liver metabolism may lead to coronary, cerebral, hepatic, and vascular diseases.
Brain Health Homocysteine is harmful to neurons and blood vessels, including the cerebral microvasculature. It is possible that such effects contribute to the cascade of events that leads to cognitive decline, dementia, and depression in later life.
Sleep-Wake Cycle Effects One double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at methylcobalamin’s role in circadian rhythm disorders. High doses (6 mg/day) of methylcobalamin showed some benefits (although not statistically significant) compared to placebo at the 8th week. Benefits were defined as improved mood at waking and less daytime sleepiness.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These products are not meant to diagnose, treat or cure any disease or medical condition. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or nutritional supplement program or before using these or any product during pregnancy or if you have a serious medical condition.
Serving Size: 1 Lozenge Servings per Container: 30
Amount per Servings % DV
Vitamin B-12 (Methylcobalamin) 1,000 mcg 16,667%
Other Ingredients: Sorbitol, xylitol, cellulose, modified cellulose
Take 1 lozenge daily with or without meals. May be chewed.
The RDA for adults is 2.4 mcg/day of vitamin B12 (for adults and adolescents over age 14). This level was set due to evidence that 1 mcg/day is needed to maintain normal levels. Given the variability of individual factors, 2 mcg/day was set to cover all needs. However, in those individuals where a defect in absorption occurs, daily replacement is necessary and their needs may be higher than normal individuals.
Because 10-30% of older adults do not absorb dietary vitamin B12 efficiently, those over age 50 should meet the RDA by eating foods fortified with B12 or by taking a vitamin B12 supplement. Supplements have been used to maintain vitamin B12 levels in older adults.
Patients taking Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI’s) or H2 Blockers may be at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency due to associated achlorohydria (low stomach HCl). Diabetic patients who take the drug Metformin, a B12 and folic acid deficiency may occur, leading to high homocysteine levels.
B-12-Plus Natural Berry Flavor 1000 mcg 30 Vegetarian Lozenges
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Domestic orders placed by 5 PM Eastern Time will be packed and shipped the same day, pending verification of billing information and the shipping method selected. Orders containing out-of-stock items or refrigerated items will be processed as quickly as possible, but won't necessarily be shipped out the same day.
Excludes all orders placed during weekends and on major US holidays (Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and New Year’s Day).